Welcome to the Volume 3 Number: 3 of intWOJDE;
In this issue, 4 articles of 7 authors from 4 different countries around the world have been published. These published articles are arrived to the intWOJDE from, Bangldesh, Malaysia, Nigeria and Turkey.
Next Issue on 1st of October 2014.
International Women Online Journal of Distance Education, Volume: 3 Issue: 4.
EXPLORING ADULT LEARNING PRINCIPLES
BY KNOWLES AND GENDER DIFFERENCES
OF USM DISTANCE LEARNERS
This study is aimed at identifying the differences on the adult learning principles by Knowles based on gender with the use of videoconferencing technology. The heoretical foundation for this study is the andragogy theory by Knowles (1980) that holds a set of adult learning principles such as learners’ self concept; motivation to learn, readiness to learn, role of learners’ experience, learners’ need to know and learning orientation. A total of 394 respondents answered the questionnaire distributed to them and collected data were analyzed using chi-square test, t-test and descriptive analysis (mean and standard deviations). The SPSS software version 17 was utilized for data analysis.
This study showed that significance differences existed between the adult learning principles by Knowles (1980) with the use of videoconferencing technology based on gender.
The researchers recommend that further studies explore other adult learning theories looking at the gender differences besides including a larger sample from different institutions. Male and female students need to have the same opportunities in education with the use of technology to support teaching and learning process.
GIRLS STEP TOWARDS EMPOWERMENT:
Bangladesh Open University Ladder To Hope Through Gender Lens
Women’s access to education must be treated as their fundamental right. And it is only through education that they would get the chance to prepare themselves in order to play their roles in nation’s social, economic and political spheres as equal members of society.
In Bangladesh, very few women can enjoy such rights and live a healthy and prestigious life. At present due to government initiatives, girl’s enrolment in primary and secondary education is little bit higher than the boys. Despite of such encouraging scenario, there is a dark side behind this. Due to prejudice, mistaken education from family and society, lack of security, gender biased curriculum, dropout rate of girls is higher and their retention rate is low. Though there are facilities with free education till secondary education, lack of social motivation, mistaken education and increasing rate of violence against in different form, refrain them from education and encourage them in child marriage. Marriage is considered as the alternative to education, which ultimately leads to violence against women due to unpaid dowry.
The article will analyse the issues of some social problem with special emphasis on
mistaken family education. Curricula and textbooks are gender biased and classroom
environment are more gender biased. Bangladesh Open University has all the freedom, access and opportunity to overcome the problems with their unlimited innovations to refrain the girls from education. Some textbooks of BOU will be reviewed from gender perspective and will put some alternative approaches. The article will emphasis on the uniform gender code, gender sensitivity and gender balance in among all the Open and Distance Learning Institution of the developing countries.
DISTANCE EDUCATION AS A WOMAN
EMPOWERMENT STRATEGY IN AFRICA
Studies over time have revealed that education is the most potent instrument for the
emancipation of any group of people (Azikiwe 1992; Ocholi 1999; UNIC, 2000). Sambo (2000) also opined that mental freedom, which usually precedes all other forms of freedom, can only be guaranteed by an effective education system.
This view was further crystallised by Okeke (1995) when she observed that education is a sure pathway to the liberation of the mind and the improvement of socio-economic status of people.
History, the world over, is replete with the achievements of men folk and their contributions to the development processes and from time immemorial the position of women in the structure of society has never been considered on the same plain a s that of men, they have been regarded as a second-fiddle. It is on this believe that Ker (1999) argued that women all over the world have been categorized under the disadvantaged groups of people and society itself has systematically and consistently pursued the socialization of women into accepting the notion of disadvantaged group.
Given the preponderance of this categorization of women as a disadvantaged group of people, a social reengineering process is required to introduce equality through
emancipation of the mind.
This is where education has been found to be useful as a liberating force and agent of social change especially in developing countries like Nigeria.
It is on this premise that the Open and Distance Learning scheme is hereby considered as an effective strategy for women empowerment, within the functional framework of the general lifelong education process.
WOMEN’S PERCEPTIONS OF LEADERSHIP
IN DISTANCE EDUCATION
Leaders are making differences; they are leaders because of having different characteristics than others. In the literature, definite leadership styles were described which were arising from these different structures of leaders. Studies on women's leadership styles began in the mid-1970s. In the 1990s researches focused on leadership style which was most suitable for women or men.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether any leadership style has convenient for women in distance education and how women assess themselves as a distance education leader and to assist in improving the leadership capabilities of distance education leaders by identifying women’s perceptions of leadership characteristics of distance education
leaders. By choosing one of the most focused leadership styles in the literature, an
appropriate leadership style has asked to participants (132 women staff of distance
education institutions in Turkey) for defining themselves, then the demographic and
personal attributes (age, appellation, duty, management status, distance education
experience) of these women were compared with their own leaders hip styles defined by them.
Then thirty-seven leadership attributes identified by Leadership Attributes Inventory
(LAI) have been asked to participants to describe the characteristics of distance
education leaders. This study is also drawn an attention to the lack of women managers in especially senior managements of distance education institutions.
Source: International Women Online Journal of Distance Education (int.WOJDE)